Edward Witten got the most votes (with Steven Weinberg the runner-up). While Edward Witten’s entry into the field of physics was late, his rise was meteoric.

Stránka byla naposledy editována 13. Edward Witten (* 26. srpna 1951 ) je jedním z nejvýznamnějších žijících fyziků a zřejmě vůbec nejcitovanějším z nich (má nejvyšší tzv. Upon completion of high school in 1968, he was enrolled at Brandeis University. Although he is definitely a physicist (as his list of publications clearly shows) his command of mathematics is rivaled by few mathematicians, and his ability to interpret physical ideas in mathematical form is quite unique. Roku 1976 získal doktorát z teoretické fyziky. ][13], Witten attended the University of Wisconsin–Madison for one semester as an economics graduate student before dropping out. Edward Witten (born August 26, 1951) is an American theoretical physicist and professor of mathematical physics at the Institute for Advanced Study in Princeton, New Jersey. [25] Maldacena's discovery has dominated high energy theoretical physics for the past 15 years because of its applications to theoretical problems in quantum gravity and quantum field theory.

[19] This theorem asserts that (under appropriate assumptions) the total energy of a gravitating system is always positive and can be zero only if the geometry of spacetime is that of flat Minkowski space. [23][24] Witten's proposal was based on the observation that the five string theories can be mapped to one another by certain rules called dualities and are identified by these dualities. Error rating book. Witten in 2008. He was also granted a MacArthur Foundation fellowship and the Harvard Society of Fellows. He did a stint as an article writer for newspapers like, The Nation and The New Republic. While Edward Witten’s entry into the field of physics was late, his rise was meteoric. He stumbled upon a discovery, the mathematical theory of knots and 3-manifolds can be understood in the light of framework provided by Chern-Simons theory. In 1990, the International Mathematical Union awarded him the Fields Medal which rendered him the first physicist to achieve the prize. Dr. Witten has made significant contributions to theoretical physics for more than 30 years as a leader in the dramatic evolution of superstring theory. There was awarded a Bachelor of Arts degree in 1971. In general, Witten has done influential and insightful works in many aspects of quantum field theories and mathematical physics, including the physics and mathematics of anomalies, integrability, dualities, localization, homologies and so on. 22 September 2014. In the late 1980s, Witten coined the term topological quantum field theory for a certain type of physical theory in which the expectation values of observable quantities encode information about the topology of spacetime. Our editors will review what you’ve submitted and determine whether to revise the article. Edward Witten (* 26. srpna 1951 ) je jedním z nejvýznamnějších žijících fyziků a zřejmě vůbec nejcitovanějším z nich (má nejvyšší tzv.

[27] In another well-known paper, they studied aspects of supersymmetric gauge theory. Another of his contributions to physics was to the result of gauge/gravity duality. His proof of the positive energy theorem in general relativity presented in 1981 was another reason why he was awarded the Field Award.

[36][37], In an informal poll at a 1990 cosmology conference, Witten received the largest number of mentions as "the smartest living physicist". Edward Witten’s work exhibits a unique combination of mathematical power and physics insight, and his contributions have significantly enriched both fields. Just recently he was awarded Albert Einstein Award (2016). Retrieved 14 October 2014. Speaking at the string theory conference at University of Southern California in 1995, Witten made the surprising suggestion that these five string theories were in fact not distinct theories, but different limits of a single theory which he called M-theory. https://cs.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=Edward_Witten&oldid=18693434, licencí Creative Commons Uveďte autora – Zachovejte licenci. Edward Witten is a celebrated contemporary American mathematician and a physicist. scientificamerican.com. For his leadership in a broad range of topics in mathematics and theoretical physics, including attempts to understand the fundamental forces of nature through string theory, and his inspired use of insights from physics to unify apparently disparate areas of mathematics. Lawrence?, by Edward Witten, THE NEW REPUBLIC", "The New Left, by Edward Witten, THE NATION", "Quantum Field Theory and the Jones Polynomial", "A new proof of the positive energy theorem", University of Southern California, Los Angeles, Future Perspectives in String Theory, March 13-18, 1995, E. Witten: Some problems of strong and weak coupling, Advances in Theoretical and Mathematical Physics, "Golden Plate Awardees of the American Academy of Achievement", "Il premio Pitagora al fisico teorico Witten", List of Fellows of the American Mathematical Society, "Physics Titan Edward Witten Still Thinks String Theory 'on the Right Track, "The 2014 Kyoto Prize Commemorative Lecture in Basic Sciences", "For an Economic Boycott and Political Nonrecognition of the Israeli Settlements in the Occupied Territories", A Physicist’s Physicist Ponders the Nature of Reality, Interview with Nathalie Wolchover in Quanta Magazine, 28th November, 2017, The Event Horizon Telescope Collaboration, Albert Einstein World Award of Science Laureates, https://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=Edward_Witten&oldid=982391276, Fellows of the American Academy of Arts and Sciences, Fellows of the American Mathematical Society, Members of the American Philosophical Society, Members of the French Academy of Sciences, Members of the Pontifical Academy of Sciences, Members of the United States National Academy of Sciences, Fellows of the Royal Society of Edinburgh, All articles with vague or ambiguous time, Vague or ambiguous time from October 2019, Wikipedia articles with BIBSYS identifiers, Wikipedia articles with CINII identifiers, Wikipedia articles with ORCID identifiers, Wikipedia articles with SNAC-ID identifiers, Wikipedia articles with SUDOC identifiers, Wikipedia articles with WorldCat identifiers, Creative Commons Attribution-ShareAlike License. As an example of Witten's work in pure mathematics, Atiyah cites his application of techniques from quantum field theory to the mathematical subject of low-dimensional topology. At the Institute for Advanced Study in Princeton, he is a professor of mathematical physics. See if your friends have read any of Edward Witten's books. Another stint he did was for presidential campaign of George McGovern. “String theory is an attempt at a deeper description of nature by thinking of an elementary particle not as a little point but as a little loop of vibrating string.”, “If one of the five theories describes our univers, who lives in the other four worlds”, “Away from the safety of your home, the universe was not made for your convenience.”. In their paper on string theory and noncommutative geometry, Seiberg and Witten studied certain noncommutative quantum field theories that arise as limits of string theory. Witten was awarded the Fields Medal at the International Congress of Mathematicians in Kyōto, Japan, in 1990. His father, Louis Witten, was a prominent theoretical physicist whose forte was classical gravitation and general relativity. In 1973, he enrolled at Princeton, found his way to the physics department, and received his Ph.D in 1976. [28] The latter paper, combined with Witten's earlier work on topological quantum field theory,[16] led to developments in the topology of smooth 4-manifolds, in particular the notion of Seiberg–Witten invariants. He made significant contributions to Morse theory, supersymmetry, and knot theory.

[39] They have two daughters and one son. Currently, one of the daughters, Ilana teaches at Princeton University as a neuroscientist. Edward Witten was born into a Jewish family. While the original proof of this result due to Richard Schoen and Shing-Tung Yau used variational methods,[20][21] Witten's proof used ideas from supergravity theory to simplify the argument.

[38], Witten has been married to Chiara Nappi, a professor of physics at Princeton University, since 1979. With the physicist Nathan Seiberg he produced a family of partial differential equations that greatly simplified Simon Donaldson’s approach to the classification of four-dimensional manifolds. Edward Witten (born August 26, 1951) is an American mathematical and theoretical physicist. Updates?

Witten’s notable contributions also include his work to refine and prove Einstein’s theory of general relativity, and his deft use of mathematics to chart the topology of spacetime.rnrnBy Jeremy Gordon, Five questions for Shirley Ann Jackson from MIT students…, Dr. Jackson spoke at MIT about being a change agent, education,…, A conversation with Dr. Shirley Ann Jackson about educating…. Many of his results have deeply influenced many areas in theoretical physics (often well beyond the original context of his results), including string theory, quantum gravity and topological condensed matter. Green, M., John H. Schwarz, and E. Witten. Witten's foundational work following Maldacena's result has shed light on this relationship.[26]. Edward Witten is a celebrated contemporary American mathematician and a physicist. "At a 1990 conference on cosmology," wrote John Horgan in 2014, "I asked attendees, who included folks like Stephen Hawking, Michael Turner, James Peebles, Alan Guth and Andrei Linde, to nominate the smartest living physicist. A fellow scientist commented on Witten work as that he has more command over mathematics than any other subject and he possesses a unique ability to interpret physical ideas in mathematical form. He received fellowship to several universities and institutions including Harvard University during mid-1970s and in 1977 he visited Oxford University. This field is for validation purposes and should be left unchanged.

A third area mentioned in Atiyah's address is Witten's work relating supersymmetry and Morse theory,[22] a branch of mathematics that studies the topology of manifolds using the concept of a differentiable function. Refresh and try again. In collaboration with Nathan Seiberg, Witten established several powerful results in quantum field theories. In 1997, Juan Maldacena formulated a result known as the AdS/CFT correspondence, which establishes a relationship between certain quantum field theories and theories of quantum gravity. He worked in the several domains of mathematical physics researching quantum field theory, quantum gravity and string theory. In his hands physics is once again providing a rich source of inspiration and insight in mathematics. He is credited for further developing pure mathematics. This page was last edited on 7 October 2020, at 20:59.

Narodil se v Baltimoru, ve dvaceti absolvoval na Brandeisově univerzitě v Bostonu bakalářské studium historie s vedlejším zaměřením na lingvistiku. Witten’s work is acknowledged as pure mathematics when he applied methods of quantum field theory to low-dimensional topology which is belongs to mathematical domain. 6. Witten's work gave a physical proof of a classical result, the Morse inequalities, by interpreting the theory in terms of supersymmetric quantum mechanics. Edward Witten – Adventures in physics and math (Kyoto Prize lecture 2014), Witten biography - MacTutor History of Mathematics, "Are You Listening, D.H. Seiberg-Witten Theory, Part 1 Edward Witten Institute for Advanced Study July 19, 2010 [7], Witten was born on August 26, 1951, in Baltimore, Maryland, to a Jewish family.

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